4th International Conference on Cognitive Research on Translation and Interpreting
|Plenary Session I|
|Translation process research: Methodology and epistemology|
|Jakobsen, Arnt Lykke (Copenhagen Business School, Denmark)
|Translation process research (TPR) has evolved in four stages, each stage being associated with a dominant methodology with an underlying epistemology. Pioneers in the 1980s employed the Think Aloud Protocol (TAP) method (Krings, 1986). The epistemological assumption underlying TAP methodology was that by asking a person to 'think aloud' while performing a task, the thoughts spoken aloud would produce verbal data allowing a researcher access to, and therefore knowledge about, the person's cognitive processes (Ericsson & Simon, 1980, 1984). The second stage, beginning around the middle of the 1990s, was characterised by keystroke logging (Jakobsen 2006, 2014). The underlying assumption here was that behaviour, such as typing on a keyboard, correlated with mental processes; particularly that pauses in the typing correlated with cognitive effort. Computers made it possible to record keystrokes in time with great accuracy and certainty, which made it possible to measure delays and to some extent calculate correlations. Despite this more positivist and technology-dependent methodology, the aim was to gain knowledge of cognitive processes from analysis of the recorded and measured data – possibly through triangulation with interpreted TAP data. This was also the aim when eye tracking was added in the third stage of TPR from around 2005. Eye tracking technology made it possible to study gaze scientifically as evidence of cognitive phenomena like attention, attention shift, attention duration and more broadly of comprehension and text production and monitoring activity (Hvelplund 2014).
Where TAPs generally originated in classroom settings, research moved more and more into the lab with keystroke and eye tracking methods. The fourth stage involved a call for TPR to move out of the lab and into the reality of the workplace, which necessitated a shift of methodology to anthropological, observational and interpretative methods more suitable for field work study (Ehrensberger-Dow 2015, Muñoz 2016). With the shift in methodology and location came a strong focus on the dependence of human cognition on brain, body, environment and situation. The extent to which this had led to a new epistemology of TPR will be touched upon in conclusion.
|Tracking down attention and metacognition in the translation process|
|Muñoz Martín, Ricardo (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain)
|Cognitive approaches to translation focusing on memory and problem-solving led our first steps and yielded many insights into translation processes, but they are nearly exhausted. Cognitive Translatology contemplates cognition as the result of interaction between cognizant agents and their environment; communication, as behavior; and language, as both a social and an individual tool.Within this approach, attention is taken to be a key factor to apprehend in translators' and interpreters' mental processes. Evidence will be provided to show that pauses of various lengths may signal monitoring and task switching processes, often between task segments devoted to a single subtask, such as information search or changing the text-written-so-far. Empty task segments will be argued to be often devoted to both prospective reading and planning, two activities that may conflate in the translation process. Other indicators of metacognitive activity and attentional variations may yield a fuller picture of the unfolding of the translation process. Examples will be shown in the pair English (L2) into Spanish (L1).|
|Translation: A category-based transformation perspective|
|Wen, Xu (Southwest University, China)
|Catford (1965: 1) pointed out that "Translation is an operation performed on language: a process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another. Clearly, then, any theory of translation must draw upon a theory of language--a general linguistic theory". We have to admit that Catford's idea was reasonable and convincing in the 1960s, since linguistics was as it was then. But as we know, linguistics has blossomed out since then, and various new branches or paradigms have come to the front, such as pragmatics, functional linguistics, and cognitive linguistics. It seems that a general linguistic theory cannot satisfactorily meet the needs of translation studies.
This article, within the framework of cognitive linguistics, categorization theory in particular, states that translation is actually a category-based transformation or switching process. This process involves
(1) switching from one category to another,
This article will take Chinese-to-English translation as examples, especially the translation of Chinese idioms or set expressions into English. Evidences demonstrate that the category-based transformation perspective partially reveals the nature and cognitive processes of translation.
|A minimal cognitive model of translation and post-editing|
|Carl, Michael (Renmin University of China & Copenhagen Business School)
|This study investigates the coordination of reading (input) and writing (output) activities in from-scratch translation and post-editing. We segment logged eye movements and keylogging data into minimal units of reading and writing activity and model the process of post-editing and from-scratch translation as a Markov model. We show that the time translators and posteditors spend on source or target text reading predicts with a high degree of accuracy how likely it is that they engage in successive writing. We further show that the writing probability is also conditioned by the degree to which source and target text share semantic and syntactic properties. The minimal cognitive Markov model describes basic havioral fragments which play a role in the processes occurring between input (reading) and output (writing) during translation.|
|Interaction between visual presentation and simultaneous interpreters' distribution of cognitive effort, behaviour and performance: An eye-tracking exploration|
|Li, Defeng & Lei, Victoria L. C. & Yang, Shanshan (University of Macau, China)
|It has been a long-standing assumption that a clear view of the Powerpoint presentation and the speaker is of vital importance to the performance of the simultaneous interpreter. However, our previous project “Tracking Where Conference Interpreters Look” (Li & Lei 2016) studying interpreters' eye-fixation patterns found that the more the interpreters looked at the Powerpoint presentation, the worse they performed. On the other hand, fixation on the speaker had positive impact on the interpreter's performance.|
Our interpretation was that as cognitive resources were limited in supply (Gile, 1995), interpreters who shifted significant amount of their attention onto the screen, where the Powerpoint slide was on display ended up having insufficient cognitive resources for other efforts involved in the complicated task of simultaneous interpreting, and thus this shift effected a drop in the interpreters' overall interpreting performances. In particular, the slides used in the study were filled with texts consisting of full sentences, which were pretty much like written texts with high density of information, and reading these texts was very costly on their cognitive resources in simultaneous interpreting, as Shreve et al (2010) found earlier.
We have since been wondering how a different design of the PPT slide might interact with the interpreters' performance. In the present study, we are going to examine what eye movement patterns the simultaneous interpreters will display when they are presented with slides of different designs, namely, slide filled with full texts similar to standard written texts, slide containing only a couple of key terms, and slide showing only pictorial information relevant to the speech. Furthermore, we are also going to gauge how their eye movement patterns correlate with their overall interpreting performances before possible practical, theoretical and pedagogical implications are explored as the concluding remarks of the presentation. /td>
|Plenary Session II|
|Pragmatic inference in translation processing: A comparison of behavioral and neuroimaging data|
|Fabio, Alves (Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil)
|Although the explicitness of words and phrases often suggests otherwise, natural communication is to a large extent inferential (Basnáková et al., 2013). Drawing on influential theoretical accounts of speaker meaning interpretation (Grice, 1975; Sperber & Wilson 1986/95; Baron-Cohen, Leslie & Frith, 1985), and on the metarepresentational view of translation (Gutt, 2005, 2006), this paper attempts to outline how brain research can influence our understanding of the translation process. In particular, we are interested in understanding how the brain supports the computation of context-dependent speaker meanings while performing a translation task. When communicating the author's informative intentions to a target audience, translators need to construct a hypothesis not only about the information shared between the author and its original public, but they also need to be aware of what interpretations the target audience might have available in their cognitive environments. Recognizing speaker's meaning amounts to recognizing the intention behind the speaker's communicative behavior. It can be considered as a variety of mind-reading (Wilson, 2005) which engages both the frontal-temporal language and theory-of-mind networks. This presentation sets out to introduce a new locus of research combining behavioral and neuroscientific methods, in which novice and professional translators perform reading and translation tasks in both eye tracking and fMRI environments. Data from the performance of novice and professional translators' performance will be cross-analyzed to look at correlations between translators' behavioral traits and the activation of translation-related areas in the human brain. In doing so, our study provides novel evidence concerning how theory-of-mind networks interact for pragmatic inference and how translation processing is influenced by these levels of the mind-reading ability.|
|Situated cognition and ergonomics in translation process research|
(ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland)
|Currently translation process research in our institute is transitioning from a focus on the micro level of decision-making and problem-solving activities in isolation (small p-process) to a more inclusive, macro interest in translators operating in specific situations and embedded in organizational, societal, and discursive structures (big P-process). The messy reality of non-comparable source texts, degrees of domain knowledge, divergent experiences, sociolinguistic biographies, and familiarity with tools is difficult to reconcile with research that attempts to objectively measure, quantify, and describe cognitive processes. Attempts to control the settings in which data are collected risk reducing background conditions to the lowest common denominator with respect to tasks and stimuli, which may not allow translators to exhibit the expert behaviour that could be of most interest. This overview of translation process research from an ergonomic perspective is hoped to stimulate discussion and reflection of translation as a situated cognitive activity.|
|Online measures of working memory load: processing AVT products|
|Kruger, Jan-Louis (Macquarie University, Australia)
|Cognitive processing and working memory load during the production of translation and interpreting has received substantial attention in recent years. Due to the simultaneous demands of various processes on the cognitive resources during interpreting, it is not surprising that much of the work on cognitive processing has occurred in this context. Likewise, cognitive processing during translation has received substantial attention in the context of the use of CAT tools, post-editing, and in the presence of nodes such as markers of foreignization or domestication, ambiguity, culturally-specific items and other items that place additional demand on working memory resources. In audiovisual translation (AVT), there has been a strong emphasis on studying the cognitive processing of the AVT product (mainly subtitles) by users. The use of post-hoc self-report questionnaires and comprehension and recall measures to evaluate the impact of different graphic, temporal, and translation aspects on the audience was soon supplemented by eye tracking studies that could provide more information on how subtitles are processed and on the attention distribution between the image and the text of the subtitles. In addition to information on attention allocation, eye tracking also makes it possible to measure the cognitive load or working memory load during the processing of a translated text based on pupil dilation, blink rate, fixation duration, and number of fixations. This online measure, however, has some limitations in the context of film due to the complexity and dynamic nature of audiovisual texts. In this paper I will discuss the merits and limitations of the use of eye tracking in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) to measure fluctuations in working memory load. I will also refer to findings in a recent study (conducted in collaboration with Stephen Doherty from UNSW and Leidy Castro-Menezes from Macquarie University), designed to evaluate the ability of these measures to distinguish between different levels of linguistic complexity in video. I will also discuss ways in which these findings can be validated in the presence of AVT products.|
|The effect of explanatory captions on the reception of foreign tv programme: An eye-tracking and retrospective study|
|Zheng, Binghan (Durham University, UK)
|With the development of fan-sub groups in China, subtitling practices have greatly changed in the past decades. Among all these emerging subtitling forms, Explanatory Captions (EC), defined as the caption sitting on the top of the screen, aiming at providing cultural background knowledge and improving relevance between performance and reception of a video, has been widely accepted by many audiences when watching foreign language TV series. However, hardly any research has shed light on this novel subtitling form, leaving the effect of EC on the reception of TV programme still in dark. The present research triangulates questionnaire, retrospective interview and eye-tracking data, aims to investigate how ECs are received by different viewers with varied education background, and whether or not the presence of ECs improves their understanding of TV performance. The results show that, the provision of ECs for a subtitled video in foreign language will greatly increase the viewers' positive cognitive effects (PCE). Although viewers need to invest additional processing efforts on ECs, their allocation of processing efforts on normal subtitles remain little change. Besides, a more regular reading pattern by the viewers with ECs can balance some negative impact of ECs on their viewing experience. Our findings gained through the experimental research will provide some guidance and suggestions for subtitlers when making subtitles and ECs.|
|Combining eye-tracking and corpus-assisted research on the underlying neurocognitive processes of sight interpreting|
|He, Yuanjian & Lang, Yue & Hou, Linping (University of Macau, China)
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|We report the results of a combined study of the underlying neurocognitive processes of sight interpreting, using eye-tracking and corpus data targeting on cultural specificity in the source and how it was encoded by the interpreters. It is assumed that cultural specificity poses a cognitive barrier in interlingual reformation because it is unique to the source system and opaque to the target system. In the eye-tracking study, 15 student interpreters were asked to sight interpret a text from L2 (E) to L1 (C), with independent variables being the source type (CSIs & non-CSIs) and dependent variables consisting of first fixation duration, total fixation duration, and the total fixation count. In the corpus-assisted study, the product of the eye-tracked interpreting experiment was used to construct a parallel corpus, with CSIs & non-CSIs being independent variables and the interpreting strategies (transcoding, paraphrasing, substitution, and omission) of CSIs & non-CSIs being dependent variables. Combined and cross-examined, there were no significant differences in frequency, familiarity and the orthographic length of CSIs and non-CSIs between eye-tracking and corpus-assisted research results, both of which showed that regardless of textual cultural specificity, an interpreter translated CSIs and non-CSIs in a similar way, with no marked statistical difference between the dependent variables. This seems to suggest that at least in this study it is not cultural specificity per se that appears to be the impacting factor in the underlying neurocognitive processes of sight interpreting where an interpreter may translate CSIs and non-CSIs using different strategies. Further studies are needed.|
|From translation process research to translation psychology: An expanding field|
|Sun, Sanjun (Beijing Foreign Studies University, China)
Translation process research (TPR) has become an important branch in Translation Studies. Besides normal accumulation and progression of knowledge, this research field has been driven by borrowing theories, concepts and research methods from neighboring disciplines and by the interaction between translation research and language industry practice. In terms of research objects, its research foci have expanded from translation and interpreting to include sight translation (or interpreting), post-editing, computer-aided translation (or interpreting), and grading.
Over the years, this research field has different labels other than TPR, such as cognitive translation studies, cognitive translatology, cognitive approaches to translation, and translation psychology. Despite the fact that few people (e.g., Jääskeläinen, 2012) in English literature use “translation psychology”, there have been at least 6 monographs entitled “Translation Psychology” in Chinese since 2007. Probably it is time for us to consider the differences between these labels.
Mainly drawing upon cognitive psychology, TPR focuses on the translator's mind and behavior; it usually does not investigate the mind and behavior of the audience (i.e., readers, listeners or viewers), editors or graders. Cognitive translation studies (CTS) takes Cognitive Science as a referential framework, which studies information processing in human cognition, and it covers more ground than TPR does. Compared with Cognitive Science, psychology studies cognition, emotion and motivation and has well-established subdisciplines such as educational psychology, assessment psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, and human factors psychology. These subdisciplines can give TPR a better structure. Of course, not all research topics in a field are equally important; translation process research stays at the core of translation psychology.
|Cognitive effort in machine translation post-editing and human translation: Combining eye-tracking and keylogging|
|Lu, Zhi & Sun, Juan (Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, China)
|The present study aims to investigate the applicability of post-editing of machine translation for college English learners to conduct Chinese-English translation, as compared with traditional human translation. Method involved in this research were eye-tracking and keylogging. Three research questions were raised to explore: a) differences of temporal and cognitive effort required to post-editing and human translation; b) impacts of text types and education of translator on the cognitive effort for post-editing; c) distinctions of the allocation of cognitive effort to source text comprehension and target text production between human translation process and post-editing process.
This research has a 2 (Task: post-editing and. human translation) ×3 (Text: economic, political and literary) ×2 (Education: undergraduate and postgraduate) mixed design. Task and text type are within-subject factors; education of translator is between-subject factor. 15 undergraduates and 15 postgraduates were employed in the experiment. Results show that (1) post-editing is processed significantly faster than human translation; (2) the number of fixation counts, average fixation duration as well as pupil dilation indicate that cognitive effort required to post-editing is less compared with human translation; (3) the main effect of text type is significant; (4) the main effect of education proves marginally significant, postgraduates requires less cognitive effort for post-editing than undergraduates; (5) Data of fixation counts and fixation duration indicate that compared with post-editing, translators spent more cognitive effort for both source text comprehension and target text production when translating from scratch.
|Translation styles in English-Chinese sight translation: An eye-tracking study|
|Su, Wenchao & Li, Defeng (University of Macau, China)
|Building on previous work on translation styles (Carl et al. 2011; Dragsted &Carl 2013), this paper aims to investigate translation styles during sight translation in the Chinese-English language pair. Eye tracking was employed to explore the reading behavior of 8 translation students in the phases of reading before and during sight translation for each L1 and L2 sight translation. Retrospective interviews with gaze replay were conducted immediately after each task. Results indicated that in the phase of reading before sight translation, the students read the texts systematically in both directions. Furthermore, in the phase of reading during sight translation, looking ahead was common and there were frequently two reading processes following each other in both directions. Also, when the students looked at the source texts words in Chinese while orally translating the equivalents, they seemed more likely to suffer from visual interference effect. Finally, the effect of directionality on translation styles amongst translation students was evaluated.|
|Allocation of attentional resources in l1 and l2 translation: Evidence from keystroke logging and eye-tracking|
|Feng, Jia & Wang, Kefei (Beijing Foreign Studies University; Renmin University of China)
|This study examined the allocation of attentional resources in E-C translation and C-E translation. The participants of this study were 43 postgraduate students in the Master of Translation & Interpreting Program from three universities, all of whom had Chinese as their first language. All participants translated two English texts into Chinese and two Chinese texts into English. The translation processes were recorded by Translog II and Tobii TX300. A total of 182,317 seconds of translation process data were collected from 172 translation tasks, which yielded 55,719 words of translation product data. The analysis started from the examination of the total attentional resources of E-C and C-E translations, and then examined the allocation of attentional resources in three phases of translation and in three types of cognitive actives in both directions of translation. The quantitative analysis was further triangulated with the qualitative analysis of Translation Progression Graphs (Carl et al. 2011). The attentional resources of three phases were also correlated against each other with an aim to explore the translators' strategic allocation of attention resources across three phases. The results of the study contribute to a finer-grained understanding of the cognitive mechanism in L1 and L2 translation. It also contributes to Translation Process Research by providing empirical evidence from the language pair of English and Chinese.|
|Cognitive challenges in teaching Chinese-English translation: From process to product|
|Wang, Xiaoyan (Xi'an International Studies University, China)
|Roger T. Bell's (1991) translation model is the first of its kind that attempts principled synthesis between “the process and product of translating and the intellectual traditions which … underpin its work, particularly those of linguistics and psychology” (Candlin, as cited in Bell, 1991: xi). According to Bell, translation process can be divided into analysis and synthesis, with each containing three distinguishable areas of operation: (1) syntactic, (2) semantic and (3) pragmatic (ibid: 45). Differentiation among 'utterance,' 'sentence,' and 'proposition' is important as it indicates the 'immediate situation of the utterance', the abstract context and the universe of discourse of the source text, and distinction of them empowers translator to see the cognitive meaning, the interactional meaning and the discoursal meaning of the source text. In essence, words, syntax and discourse of the source text are meant to capture what the original author sees, senses or perceives of the external world. Therefore, it is the underlying picture, feeling or experience of the author, hiding behind the linguistic forms of the source text in way of cognitive meaning, interactional meaning and discoursal meaning, that should be communicated, not the equivalents of the actual words. With this theoretical framework, the paper first examines the cognitive challenges that may rise during the process of analysis and synthesis, namely the syntactic, semantic, pragmatic analysis, and the corresponding syntactic, semantic and pragmatic synthesis while translating between English and Chinese. Then it discusses the significance of these challenges for Chinese and English translation. The author believes that these cognitive challenges are of great implications to E-C and C-E translation, as they will inform translators, enlighten translation teachers and illuminate translation researchers.|
|Redefining relevance of translation: A Leontjev's psychological perspective|
|Sang, Zhonggang (Tianshui Normal University, China)
|Relevance theory is a cognitive-pragmatic approach to verbal communication. It highlights the ostensive-inferential aspect of communication. Gutt (1991; 1996; 2004) applies this approach to elaborating on the nature of translation. He defines translation as an instance of interpretive use of language across language boundaries (Gutt, 2004: 105). As Gutt points out, an utterance is said to be used interpretively when it is intended to represent what someone said or thought (Gutt 2004: 36;39). In translating, what a translator does is to achieve the resemblance of the explicatures and implicatures in the SLT (source language text) and the TLT (target language text). The explicatures are the analytic assumptions which an addressor intends to convey and the implicatures are the contextual assumptions which an addressee builds on basis of the inferential combination of utterance/text and context (2004: 40). Based on this, Sang (2006: 43) emphasizes that literary translation is an instance of clue-based interlingual interpretive use of language as communicative clues in literary text are purely intentional, that is, they are part of the meaning which an author intends to convey.
According to Gutt (2004: 168-200), Relevance theory provides a unified account of translators' decision-making. In translating, a translator aims at making the TLT completely resemble the SLT as envisaged in the original context. Seeing the linguistic and cultural barriers as well as the divergence of SL and TL readers' expectations, a translator would make the TLT resemble the SLT in relevant respects to guarantee the success of the interlingual communication. In this sense, translation is an inferential gap-filling activity as the major task of translator is to infer the intended interpretation, context accessibility and predictions of mutuality between the SL addresser and the SL addressee, and to bridge the communication between the SL author and TL reader/s when translation problems arise (Yus, 2012: 126). Ever since the birth of Gutt's framework of translation, there has been many scholars such as Zhao (1999, 2003, 2005); Li (2003, 2005, 2007), Rosales Sequeiros (2002, 2005), Alves and Gonçalves (2003, 2007, 2010) adopting this cognitive-pragmatic theory to explain translation. Relevance theory turns out to be one of the major approaches in current translation studies. Nevertheless, there are still some problems with this approach when it is employed to account for translation. Gutt's approach, as House (1997: 20-21) comments, is “too general” to shed lights on understanding the essence of translation, a process of problems-solving. According to Wilson and Sperber (2002: 45-46), “Relevance theory is an inferential approach to pragmatics” and “the goal of inferential pragmatics is to explain how the hearer infers the speaker's meaning”. Gutt's approach can account for how a translator infers the intended meaning of the SLT, but it cannot give a specific explanation of how a translator makes decision to solve translation problems of various kinds. Though Gutt (1996) insists that translators' decision-making is guided by their search of optimal relevance that hinges upon the justified TL readers' processing effort and the adequate contextual effects yielded by the TLT (1996: 241-242), to what degree the contextual effects are adequate and the processing effort is justified remains unexplained in his framework.
As Monacelli (2009: 63) and Istvan (2014: 274-275) point out, ‘context', a key concept in Relevance theory, is hearer-centered. However, a translator is not only a hearer of the SLT, but also the producer of the TLT as well as the decision-maker to manage translation problems. What's more, in a communicative situation of translation, what is intended in the TLT is not always in line with the SL author's intention as the commissioner or client always plays a role in determining the purpose of translation action (Nord, 2006: 9). “Context of translation”, in effect, is different from that of any other lingual communication. Therefore, in order to make Relevance theory more explanatory for translation it is a necessity to reexamine the concept of translation context.
Activity Theory, a social-cultural school of psychology, was founded by L. S. Vygotsky in the 1920s, and was later developed by A. N. Leontjev and Y. Engeström. It has now become a philosophical and multidisciplinary framework to account for the process of how social practices are implemented (Kuutti, 1995: 25). According to Leontjev (1978), an social-cultural activity is a rule-governed hierarchical system which consists of three strata: social-cultural stratum, goal-directed actions and conditioned operations; the higher stratum is actualized by a lower one (Leontjev, 1978: 65- 67). In light of Leontjev's theory, ‘relevance of translation' can be better explained.
|A comparative study of human interpreting and computer-aided interpreting ——A case analysis on MA interpreters at the University of Macau|
|Chen, Jinjin & Li, Defeng & Lei, Victoria (University of Macau, China)
|The development of artificial intelligence brings about the wide application of the software or the App into translation and interpreting, hoping to assist translators and interpreters to promote the efficiency and effectiveness of translation and interpreting. This study compares the overall performance, fluency and lexical diversity of 16 MA interpreters at the University of Macau by conducting an interpreting experiment which involves two tasks: one SI without the App, and the other with the App, aiming to explore the difference between human interpreting and computer-aided interpreting, and that between advanced interpreters and medium interpreters under these two conditions. Finally, the research finds out (a) computer-aided interpreting greatly exceeds human interpreting in terms of overall performance, fluency and lexical density respectively; (b) the App helps interpreters shorten their original gap with each other as for overall performance and fluency, but does nearly no help as for lexical diversity;(c)as far as the overall performance, fluency and lexical density are concerned, advanced interpreters perform nearly the same when they are using the App as not using the App, but medium interpreters perform quite better when they are using the App. From this study, it is hoped that the software or the App can be widely used to assist the translators, interpreters and trainers in translation and interpreting practice and training for the purpose of promoting the quality of translation and interpreting. *This study was funded by Multiple Year Research Grants (MYRG2015-00150-FAH, MYRG2016-00096-FAH, MYRG2017-00139-FAH).|
|Fostering translation trainees' metacognitive skills: The value of self-reflection|
|Pietrzak, Paulina (University of Lodz, Poland)
|The theoretical foundation of the presentation is derived from the concept of holistic education of the translator which advocates an interdisciplinary approach and considers the essential objectives of translation teaching to be “raising students” awareness of the factors involved in translation, helping to develop their own translator's self-concept, and assisting in the collaborative construction of individually tailored tools that will allow every student to function within the language mediation community upon graduation” (Kiraly 2000: 49). In this approach, the responsibility for a successful learning process is placed not only in the teacher's but also in the student's hands. In light of the fact that teachers can control what they teach, but they cannot control what is learned (Ellis 2001: 71), the translation teacher is not the only person who should hold control in the translation classroom. In recent years, the traditional teacher-centred approach to translation teaching, translation methods and course content becomes less and less popular. González Davies and Kiraly (2006: 83) observe an important shift towards student-centred learning, which is reflected in the increasing popularity of “a systematic transfer of control from the teacher to the learners”. Autonomous and self-regulated learning empowers students to plan, monitor, control and reflect on the specific problems that they encounter. Such metacognitive activities are crucial for the development of translator expertise, “especially outside of optimally structured work environments, training academies, and other places with defined translation workflows and opportunities for feedback” (Shreve 2006: 32). Engaging students in assessment-related practices enables them to both benefit more from assessment and also develop metacognitive skills, which are indispensable for effective functioning in the contemporary, highly dynamic, translation market. With the aim of emphasizing the role of metacognition in the process of translation education, the presentation focuses on the translator's self-reflection as one of most important abilities to develop in translation students before they go off to the market. A selection of strategies that support students' self-refection will be demonstrated in relation to assessment practice. The point is to consider how such reflective assessment strategies can be used by translation teachers to foster students metacognitive skills.|
|The construct of metacognition in the processing of translation problems and its measurement|
|Hu, Zhenming (Hunan University, China)
|This article attempts to contribute to the study of metacognition in translation by presenting an in-depth discussion of the construct and its measurement. Borrowing from adjacent studies on metacognition, metacognition in translation is defined as a multi-dimensional construct, including translation orienting, translation planning, translation monitoring, and translation evaluating. Then a methodological discussion is presented on how to measure metacognition in translation, focusing on the major categories of internal measure and external measure. Internal measure depends on off-line methods to collect self-evaluated data, while external measure depends on on-line methods for data-collecting at different translation problem-solving stages. Both of the measures try to collect data of the four dimensions of metacognition, with the differences that internal measure focuses on dynamic metacognitive stages while external measure focuses on translation problem-solving stages. With the advancement of new techniques in translation cognitive process research, some of them are selectively introduced that are potentially useful for measuring metacognition in translation, such as off-line techniques of self-report questionnaires and retrospective interviews, and on-line techniques of TAPs and screen recording. Research methods, research tools and research data are all triangulated respectively for gaining a more relatively comprehensive picture of metacognition in translation.|
|Subjective and objective allocation of cognitive resources: A process-oriented English-Chinese translation study|
|Wang, Yifang (Durham University, UK)
|This study is an empirical investigation of 24 translators' allocation of cognitive attention types during English-Chinese translation process. For objective description, four eye-key combination indicators are adopted to demonstrate translators' allocation of cognitive resources, namely, Total Attention Duration (TA duration), Attention Unit Count (AU count), Attention Unit Duration (AU duration) and pupil dilation. For subjective reflection, cue-based Retrospective think-aloud (RTA) method is applied to show translators' perception on the distribution of their mental processing resources. The quantitative eye-tracking and key-logging data imply that the amount of cognitive effort for different attention types differs. Target Text processing (TT processing) receives significantly more cognitive effort than Source Text processing (ST processing) and parallel processing. However, the qualitative data from the subjective reflection vary with the quantitative results, which may attribute to the participants' unawareness of their cognitive effort allocation.|
|On the distribution of attention while grading the translation|
|Wang, Junsong (Beijing Normal University, China)
|Translation quality assessment (TQA) is a core issue in translation studies and it has been approached from various perspectives with great achievements. But most of the studies insofar are product-oriented, the process of TQA has been largely ignored. In this paper, eye tracker was used to monitor the rater's distribution of attention among source text, reference text and target text while grading the translation and the raters would be asked to utter what they think about during the assessment process. Detailed analysis of these TAP data together with eye tracking data would offer a clear description of the conditions under which the raters would choose to consult the source or the reference text. And great efforts have been made to explore the possible causes of the distribution of attention by using the triangulation approach. The pilot study shows that the raters would consult the original text and reference text while grading the target text. And the patterns of distribution of attention fall into three categories: focus on the original, focus on the reference text and equal focus on the original and reference text. It is believed that the patterns of distribution are closely related with the rater's expertise, assessment method and what they think about translation. It is hoped that the exploratory study would shed some light on the cognitive process of translation quality assessment.|
|A longitudinal study on the formation of Chinese students' translation competence: With a particular focus on metacognitive reflection and web searching|
|Chang, Li-you (University College London, UK)
|The present study aims to explore the formation of ten Chinese students' translation competence (TC) focusing on web searching skills as instrumental competence and their metacognitive reflection during a one-year postgraduate translation course in the UK. This study adopts a multi-method approach, including thinking-aloud (TA), screen recording, and cue-based retrospective interview. The TA and screen-recording methods were used to record the students' concurrent verbalisations of thoughts and their on-screen behaviours while they were translating tourism texts from English into Chinese in three separate tasks. Shortly after each task, cue-based retrospective interviews were carried out to prompt the students to reflect on their metacognitive translation behaviours by reviewing their verbalisations and on-screen behaviours.
The key findings of the present study are as follows. Firstly, the students' reflection shows that their perceptions of unsuccessful solutions largely resulted from their misjudgements of translation problems.Secondly, my data suggest that the students gradually moved away from dictionary-based web resources only and learned to cross-check and justify more unconventional web resources such as online images and online maps to solve their translation problems. Meanwhile, it was also found that the students spent more time looking for background knowledge on the web rather than focusing on finding a TT equivalent.
|Syntactic shift in interpreting: A cross-modal experiment of Chinese-English translation recognition|
|Huang, Xin & Li, Defeng & Lei, Victoria (University of Macau, China)
|The study of syntactic shift occupies a unique place in research on translation and interpreting. This project investigates the role of syntax in Chinese L1 students interpreting into their second language (English). Specifically, we are asking if there is a difference in cognitive effort in mapping canonical and noncanonical syntactic structures in interpreting into their L2, and how the interpreters with different language competences and different interpreting trainings deal with the problem of syntactic shift. Using Lexical Functional Grammar and Lexical Mapping Theory as the framework to model the interpreting process, we expect that mapping canonical syntactic structure is less effortful than the noncanonical ones, and both the roles of language competence and training are positive. The research sheds light in the underlying mechanism of bilingual sentence processing, and has important implication in translation/interpreting practice and training. [This study was funded by Multiple Year Research Grants (MYRG2016-00096-FAH). ]|
|Eye-tracking experiments on sight-interpreting segmentation mechanism|
|Wang, Jianhua & Zhang, Xing (Renmin University of China)
|Sight-interpreting serves as an important training method to improve simul-interpreter's performance. Skillful segmentation can help simul-interpreters to interpret highly efficiently. 17 participants are observed and tested with Tobbi eye-tracker on their single sentence sight interpreting and their passage sight interpreting. Experiment materials are selected with expert evaluation. 17 participants are TAPed and questionnaired to obtain their cognitive data on segmentation rules during sight-interpreting. Experiments show that average sentence segmentation length is 0.72 for single sentences and 0.75 for passages, which indicates that contextual effect is not significant for sight-interpreters on single sentences and passages. Questionnaires and TAP results show that in single sentence sight-interpreting, interpreters segment sentence with more care about completeness of meaning while in passage sight-interpreting, interpreters segment with more care about logic integration.|
|The influence of risk on interpreter performance: A corpus-based analysis|
|Matsushita, Kayo (Rikkyo University, Japan)
|Despite the fact that cognitive approaches have been a mainstay in Interpreting Studies since its founding, the influence of risk on the cognitive load of interpreters has remained relatively unexplored until recently. According to Pym (2015), the problems that interpreters encounter during their performances vary in terms of risk, which practitioners manage by employing higher effort for high-risk problems and lower effort for low-risk problems. This behavior has also been observed in Matsushita (2015, 2016), which analyzed risk management by interpreters and journalist-translators working for the Japanese media. In order to examine such findings quantitatively, this study utilizes a growing parallel corpus constructed from over 300 hours of English and Japanese speech data obtained from interpreter-mediated press conferences held at the Japan National Press Club since October 2009.
As part of a four-year, government-funded project led by the author of this study, a pilot corpus has been created and the project team is in the process of testing its usability through applied research. The dataset includes both simultaneous and consecutive interpreting between English and Japanese by highly trained professionals in video, audio and text. It also includes waveforms of English and Japanese renderings along with matching texts allowing visual detection of patterns during interpreting which can then be checked against time-stamped, annotated data for detailed analysis. Having multiple resources linked together in one dynamic corpus means that the cognitive load of interpreters can be analyzed more accurately than when focusing on a single factor such as the Ear-Voice Span (EVS). Using this synthesis of resources, this study compares the effort invested in interpreting high-risk and low-risk elements in political speeches in order to identify the impact of risk on the cognitive process of interpreting.
|A corpus-assisted study of memory-pairing in English-Chinese and Chinese-English simultaneous interpreting|
|Lang, Yue & He, Yuanjian (University of Macau, China)
|There are three neurofunctional routes underlying the cognitive processes of simultaneous interpreting: conceptual mediation, structure-routed transfer and memory-pairing. In the literature, the first two routes were thoroughly discussed, but memory-pairing has rarely been examined. Therefore, this research attempts to analyse memory-pairing by investigating the translation-strategy patterns of culture-specific items in a self-supported parallel Chinese-English and English-Chinese simultaneous interpreting corpus. Based on the theory of interpreting as bilingual processing and professional interpreter's working ethics, this research proposes the criteria to identify pairing in the interpreted texts. The present study finds that pairing almost takes 1/3 of the translation strategies of culture-specific items as a whole and proper names relies on memory-pairing more than non-proper names. Beside, with the increase of the grammatical unit, memory-pairing is less likely to happen.|
|Core technologies and applications to automatic alignment of E-C parallel corpora|
|Dai, Guangrong (Fujian University of Technology, China)
|“Two languages are more informative than one” (Dagan et al. 1991: 130) and bilingual parallel corpora offer a treasure house of human translator's knowledge of the correspondences between the two languages (Váradi 2000). Parallel corpora can offer a large amount of useful information for research.
Automatic sentence alignment of two languages is of critical importance for building parallel corpora. The alignment quality has direct impact on the reliability of related research such as machine translation (MT), machine aided translation (MAT)/computer aided translation (CAT), bilingual lexicography, contrastive language studies and so on.
A large number of studies have been published which deal with the alignment of European languages and some basic methods for alignment, such as statistical alignment techniques (employing empirically justified heuristic approaches) (Brown et al. 1991) and linguistic techniques (using morphosyntactic information or exploiting similarities between languages) (Oakes & McEnery 2000). English and Chinese are greatly different from each other, and aligning them at sentential level automatically presents a considerable challenge.
The researcher designed an alignment software for building English-Chinese parallel corpora (Dai 2016). It combines some technologies such as fast fuzzy inference system and back propagation (BP) neural network. It also adopts the Hash algorithm for retrieving information from the knowledge database and aligned corpora with the help of a fast fuzzy inference system which can effectively support the software in aligning different sentences, and BP neural network combines the online and offline learning algorithms. The ANN (Artificial Neural Network) recognizer can take advantage of these learning algorithms, and form the Fusion Algorithm (FA). All these can help the software output the aligned results.
|Towards a corpus-assisted neurocognitive approach to translation directionality|
|Hou, Linping & He, Yuanjian
(Shandong University of Science and Technology; University of Macau)
|Most behavioral and neurological studies of directionality have revealed that there exists directionality effect in the translation processes among unbalanced bilinguals. However, a corpus-assisted neurocognitive approach to this line of research has rarely been observed. This study aims to propose a complementary fresh approach to identifying and analyzing how translational directionality operates in professional translators' brain. To this end, a corpus-assisted approach is adopted to collect the textual translating-strategy patterns of metaphorical expressions in both directions because “[metaphor] has so often been presented as a kind of ultimate test of any approach to translation” (Toury, 2012, p.107). The current study involves a self-supported bidirectional multi-translational parallel corpus (705,529 characters/words in total) encompassing Chinese source texts (STs) and English target texts (TTs) translated by L1- and L2-English translators respectively. Three major findings are derived from the theoretical inquiry into the descriptive patterns. First, conceptual mediation is the dominant processing route regardless of translation directions. Second, there occurs an opposite asymmetric effect, i.e., forward translation (FT) advantage over backward translation (BT) in term of processing economy. Third, the complexity effect of grammatical units is modulated by context and translation expertise in both directions. This study reveals that FT advantage exists in the professional translators' textual translating-strategy patterns and suggests that translational directionality is regulated by the processing economy theory and influenced by implicitness, complexity of grammatical unit, and concreteness.|
|Why action is worth more than words?|
|Luo, Jing (Bloomsburg University, USA)
|The understanding of how L1 and L2 acquisitions differ at the level of neuro-cognitive process is immediately relevant to language teaching. Research with the help of F-MRI on how the human brain reacts to motor and sensory words has shown that language and gesture reciprocally influence each other. The findings offer insightful explanation, for example, about how we acquire, retrieve, and “drop” a second language. For example, performing a gesture when learning a word or a phrase has been shown to enhance its retrieval, compared to pure verbal learning. The benefit exists even when the gestures and words are incongruent. The implication is that some complex multimodal networks connecting perception and motor is in action during learning. While little is yet understood about this mechanism, it has been observed that gestures consistently reinforce the sensorimotor representation of a word or a phrase and produce a higher rate of retention. In this presentation, I will summarize a few neuroscientific studies on L2 learning, and argue that the use of gestures in L2 teaching deserves a fresh attention.|
|Is consecutive interpreting easier than simultaneous interpreting? ——A corpus-based study of lexical simplification in interpretation|
|Lyu, Qianxi (Zhejiang University, China)
|Lexical simplification parameters, labelled as representative of the cognitive load in various processes, have been applied in corpus-based studies on translation universals as well as interpretation production. We speculate that output of simultaneous interpreting (SI), “the extreme situation of language control” might be more simplified than consecutive interpreting (CI) due to the high cognitive load. To test this hypothesis, the current study examines the simplification patterns of rendered texts, based on a corpus composed of SI and CI output texts, read-out translated speech and original English speech in three dimensions -information density (in terms of lexical density), lexical repetitiveness (in terms of standardized type-token-ratio) and lexical sophistication (in terms of core vocabulary coverage). Results demonstrate that all parameters apply to CI more than SI even when the confounding textual variations such as corpus size, sentence length, and sentence count are eliminated. The finding suggests that the cognitive load of the former, if not more, may be as heavy as the latter mode of interpreting. The current research for the first time conducts comparison on quantitative measures of the output of SI versus CI. The counterintuitive results are inspiring for the specification and modification of the established Effort Model of CI.|
|On comparing text-translating patterns of culture-specific and non-culture-specific items based on three Chinese translations of Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey|
|Huang, Qiuhong & He, Yuanjian (University of Macau, China)
|Translation Studies researchers tend to believe that culture-specific items (CSIs) are an important subject to be studied because they may pose problems to translators during the translation process. However, apart from Chou, Lei, Li and He (2016) and Chou (2017), few corpus-assisted studies of translating CSIs have kept pace with findings from neurolinguistic and neurocognitive studies of the bilingual brain about the nature of the underlying cognition of bilingual processing. This study attempts to fill part of this gap of knowledge.
The aim of the study is to compare how three independent translators handle CSIs vis-à-vis non-CSIs from the same source text, in order to find out dominant translating patterns with a view to drawing some generalizations of the translators' behaviour and inferring about the neurocognitive aspects of the translation process.
Methodologically speaking, this empirical work adopts a corpus-assisted approach and attempts to explore how the three translators handle three types of CSIs, i.e., proper names, idioms and metaphors on the one hand, and the translation of non-CSIs on the other in a self-built English-Chinese Parallel Corpus of Austen's Northanger Abbey (hereafter ECPCANA) totalling 478,990 words. This study analyses text-translating patterns of 3,234 translation examples from the three TTs. In other words, a total of 1,078 translation examples in each TT are investigated, consisting of the rendering of 453 CSIs (125 idioms and 328 metaphors) vis-à-vis 453 non-CSIs, as well as 172 proper names.
Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are used to process the data from ECPCANA to find out about whether and how the three translators render the investigated items differently at lexical (nouns and verbs), phrasal (noun phrases, verb phrases and prepositional phrases) and clausal (clauses) levels. The findings of this data-rich empirical study with multiple translations of the same source are expected to provide evidence to test existing hypotheses on bilingual processing, as well as to be applicable in translator training at university level and in bilingual lexicography for providing a necessary supplement to the lexicographers' intuition.
|Holmes' Descriptive Translation Studies scheme：Some observations from a TPR perspective|
|San-Martin Sanzeri, María (Universidad de Oviedo, Spain)
|The process approach in translation has rapidly irrupted in the dynamics of researchers in translation since Krings' pioneer work (1986) was published. Being its nature a compound of several disciplines (Snell-Hornby: 1988) with their respective research idiosyncratic conventions, traditions and sources of inspiration, such as literature, linguistics, sociology, philosophy, psychology, lexicography, among others, little has been done to contextualise translation process within the general translation research framework.
The first attempt of establishing a theoretical scheme for translation studies was done by Holmes, whose approach was highly influenced by the literary translation genre. In this paper I will go through the evolution of Holmes's Descriptive Translation Studies' scheme and propose a new theoretical scheme that integrates the old positivist translation theories with the newer, functionalist and culture-oriented ones. The result will be a new theoretical model for translation process that will improve the scheme`s dynamics and reflect the most recent trends of thought in translation theory, thus becoming an integrated approach.
This scheme is aimed, as Holmes`s scheme also was, to abandon the idea of the smaller and bigger translation theories and to integrate translation process research within the general framework of translation studies.
|Outlining the scope and subfields of Cognitive Translation Studies|
|Xiao, Kairong (Southwest University, China)
|Cognitive approaches to translation are now seen by more and more scholars as a field of its own (Ferreira & Schwieter, 2017). However, some critical issues that have been discussed or warned against for several years remain disagreed or unsolved. These issues have been summarized by Ricardo Muñoz Martín (2017) as the challenge of “streamlining the assumptions and goals” and “striving for international coherence”. Another observation of this field is that it has been developing through diversified directions such as the TPR (Translation Process Research), CLTR (Cognitive Linguistic Translation Research), TBR (Translator Behaviour Research) among some others. The problem is that these different branches of research seem to be isolated from each other and TPR is assumed by some scholars in and outside this field to be equal to cognitive translation studies or cognitive translatology. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically outline the object, scope and subfields to "strive for internal coherence" of this field (Martín, 2017).
Based on this rationale, this paper attempts to discuss the following issues. The first is a critical discussion of the different names used by different scholars for the research of translation and cognition, including NPR, cognitive translatology, computational translatology, translation process research, cognitive translation studies, etc, and propose our suggestions for the use of the different names. The second is to define the core concepts and depict the overall and specific objectives of different directions. The third is to outline the major branches and subfields of cognitive translation studies in terms of the research of translation process, product and translators. Each subfield will be discussed from the aspects of its philosophical foundations, research topics and methodologies. The paper is expected to conclude with a systematic description of cognitive translation studies as a research field on its own and to offer suggestions about how scholars will work with a set of generally accepted assumptions for the internally connected subfields to yield more research fruits that will not only enrich this field itself but also inspire the neighbouring disciplines.
|Translation as a decision-making process and beyond: A cognitive approach|
|Fan, Lingjuan (Ningxia University, China)
|The advancement of cognitive science keeps us abreast with the latest knowledge of human cognition and equips us with conceptual and methodological tools to discuss the nature and future orientations of translation studies.
Translation has long been theorized as a decision making process (Levý 2000:148; Malkiel 2009). Levý (2000) conceptualizes translation as a process that translators have to choose one from a variety of alternatives, and Malkiel (2009) further discusses the great effort translators have to put to select a target-language cognate equivalent. These explanations all ring true to our experiences of translation, but they are still largely confined to the discussion between the ST and the TT, rather than a more comprehensive understanding of decision-making process in translation in general. In addition, translation scholars have drawn attention to the correlation between personality and translation performance, but little research has done to address the issue due to lack of informed approach (O'Brien 2013).
This presentation will draw on the recent theories of decision-making mechanism of humans (Kahneman 2012) and cognitive modes of humans (Kosslyn and Miller 2013) to reconceptualize translation as a decision-making process and reveal the potential link between personality and translation performance. The presentation will cover research questions as follows: i. How can the theory of cognitive modes informs the decision-making process in translation? ii. How a translator's personality may influence his/her translation performance? iii. What are the theoretical and pedagogical implications of applying these theories to translation studies?
|The translator's cognitive structure and mental operation: A cognitive-linguistic explanation|
|Zhu, Lin (Huaqiao University, China)
|The textual comprehension and (re)production in the translation process, first of all, is a process of retrieving stored knowledge from long-term memory (LTM) and relating it to the encountered discourse in working memory (WM). Therefore, the translator's cognitive structure in LTM, which means how the information within the knowledge domain is organized in the brain, is essential to his/her mental operation and problem-solving in the translation process. Drawing on theories and ideas from cognitive linguistics and psychology, this paper, after its analysis of relevant concepts linking language and cognition, expounds the hierarchical construction of the cognitive structure in LTM with those cognitive-linguistic concepts. It then illustrates with translation examples how the cognitive-linguistic resources in LTM are activated in the translator's mental operation for comprehension and decision-making in the translation process. The above discussion offers a cognitive-linguistic lens to look into what is going on in the translator's WM in the translation-oriented comprehension and translation process.|
|From typing to talking: A shift of thinking patterns in movie translation|
|Ma, Zhengqi & Xie, Zheng (Communication University of China)
|Translation is more than a physical labor of word-shifting from one language to another, but an active psychological process of rhetoric reconstruction, which is achieved through the process of decoding information from the original text and re-encoding it into the target language. Movie translation calls for a shift of thinking patterns between the SL and the TL.
This paper analyzes the psychological mechanism of re-encoding with a model that explains both the language comprehension and production phases involved in translation before giving a detailed discussion on the differences between English and Chinese languages on the lexicon, sentence, and text levels. We believe a thorough command of the identicalness and differences between the thinking patterns behind different languages is the basis to the comprehension of the text in SL and the production of utterance in the TL.
We then try to make some suggestions on achieving a desirable effect on movie translation. Movies resemble people's daily lives in different cultural contexts, and movie languages paint the characters along with their emotions and activities. Therefore translation of movies is different from that of other forms of text such as novels or academic works. A common mistake in movie translation is rendering the lines without referring to the innate activities of the characters and cultural context, therefore producing a translation text that takes a style of half written and half spoken, which is hardly encountered in real life, consequently putting obstacles in comprehension rather than eliminating them.
We recommend an approach that features the translation process from ‘typing' of words to ‘talking' as real people. Such process is analyzed from four aspects: written style vs. spoken style, cohesion, the style of daily life, and humor in the movie language.
|Measurements of translation difficulty revisited: An empirical study on the interaction of text complexity and translators’ mental workload|
|Liu, Yanmei & Zheng, Binghan & Zhou, Hao
(Shandong University of Finance and Economics/ Durham University)
|This study aims to explore the impact of text complexity indicated by readability, word frequency and non-literalness on translators’ subjective perception of translation difficulty and their corresponding mental workload recorded by eye-tracking and key-logging. 26 MA translation students from Durham University were recruited as the participants. The experimental texts were borrowed from Jensen (2009) and remained unchanged for their high-principled measurements. First of all, the participants were asked to read three texts ordered in a Latin square design in a paper form and to score the text difficulty for translation using the Likert scale. Then they started to translate three experimental texts from English into Chinese, with their typing and eye movements being tracked by Translog II and Tobii eye-tracker. Finally, the participants were asked to self-assess their mental workload resulting from their translations.
Results show that: i) the intrinsic complexity measured by readability, word frequency, and non-literalness has been well perceived by translators, whose responses toward translation difficulty about three texts are line with that of text complexity test; ii) Moderate and positive correlations existed between most items of self-assessments and the indicators (fixation + saccade durations) achieved by eye-tracking measurements; and iii) participants’ mental workload indicated by fixation and saccade durations shows a rising tendency with the increase of text complexity, but the variances in three texts do not reach statistical significance. On the other hand, participants’ cognitive effort failed to find evidence of variations from data of pupil size.
|Investigating the cognitive load in simultaneous interpreting with text at different text difficulty——An eye-tracking study|
|Yang, Shanshan & Li, Defeng & Lei, Victoria (University of Macau, China)
|Simultaneous interpreting is a cognitively very demanding task which requires different cognitive tasks to be carried out concurrently (Lambert, 2004). Difficulties- "problem triggers" to simultaneous interpreting are major concerns in interpreting process research. In simultaneous interpreting with text which more often than not implies fast delivery speed and high information density(read written speech text), the multimodal input nature makes it quite complicated to see how certain problem triggers impact the cognitive load of the working interpreters. This study adopts the eye-tracking technology to investigate how text difficulty influences the cognitive load of interpreters in simultaneous interpreting with text. Student interpreters completed 2 tasks of simultaneous interpreting with text(low text difficulty and high text difficulty respectively) sitting in front of the Tobii TX300 eye-tracker screen. In the study culture-specific items and proper name clusters were adopted as the variable of text difficulty. The eye-movements and interpreting output of the student interpreters were recorded. Holistic assessment of the interpreting performance, eye movement data and self-report data of the interpreters were triangulated to investigate the influence of text difficulty on cognitive load of interpreters. Significant differences were found in the patterns of eye movements and the defined areas of interests(AOI) under 2 conditions. There exists positive correlation between the text difficulty and the cognitive load of the interpreters, while the interpreting performance is negatively co-related with the text difficulty and the cognitive load. Different reading patterns were also observed in the task with high text difficulty.|
|How effortful are interpreters in translation related reading tasks?－An eye-tracking study|
|Wang, Jiayi & He, Yan & Li, Defeng & Lei, Victoria (University of Macau, China)
|Reading to comprehend the source text is a necessary part in translation process. However, the cognitive processing in various reading tasks is far from well-understood. The present study investigated interpreters’ eye movement behavior in E-C language pair across different reading tasks. A total of 12 subjects participated in the study. Of these 12 subjects, six were MTI (Master of Interpreting and Translation) students and six were professional interpreters. All subjects had Chinese as their L1 and translated primarily into English as their L2. 12 participants have their reading processes monitored and recorded using an eye tracker. The participants are instructed to perform four tasks involving reading for specific purposes. The four tasks and the task sequence are as follows: (1) reading for comprehension (monolingual); (2) reading for summary; (3) reading in preparation for translating; and (4) reading while speaking a translation (sight translating).
The results showed that reading purposes have a clear effect on interpreters’ eye movement behaviors. By tasks both groups of interpreters spent more task time, more and longer fixations, as they dealt with increasingly cognitive-demanding tasks. Across groups student interpreters spend more time, more and longer fixations than do professionals in all the tasks. The study revealed that the increasing cognitive efforts required by reading is dependent on various reading tasks and translation expertise, which provided tentative implications for understanding and modelling the way interpreters read. The present study confirmed most of the findings reported in Jakobsen & Jensen (2008), and partially confirmed the findings reported in Alves et al (2010). Possible reasons for the similarities and differences are discussed in the study. The study also provided evidence for the validity of eye-tracking as a methodology in different translation modalities.
|English-Chinese translation and post-editing: Investigating temporal, technical and cognitive efforts|
|Jia, Yanfang (Hunan University, China)
|The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of different task types, text types, and translation/post-editing briefs on temporal, technical and cognitive efforts in the English-Chinese translation and post-editing processes. The three efforts were gauged by production time per word, insertions and deletions of keystrokes, and pause to word ratio (PWR) with a pause threshold of 1000ms, respectively. Data were collected from 31 Chinese student translators who were invited to translate/post-edit six texts of two different types according to specific translation/post-editing briefs, which call for fairly good quality for internal or publishable quality for external disseminations. Light and full post-editing guidelines were provided for corresponding post-editing tasks. Triangulated data from keystroke logging, screen recording, questionnaires, subjects' guided interviews and written protocols were used for analysis. Results indicated that a) the post-editing task reduces the student translators' temporal, technical and cognitive efforts compared to the translation task, regardless of the text types and translation briefs; b) translating domain-specific texts takes more time and needs more cognitive effort than general-language texts, while post-editing domain-specific texts is less time-consuming and demands significantly less cognitive effort; c) different translation briefs have an impact on temporal and cognitive efforts. Translation for internal dissemination requires significantly less temporal effort than for external dissemination. Post-editing for internal dissemination reduces temporal effort but raises cognitive effort; further, qualitative results suggested that student translators without former post-editing experience reported challenges in following the guideline for light post-editing to make good use of the machine translation output and produce fairly good target texts. Thus, more emphasis should be placed on this issue in future research and in post-editor training.|
|A Research into the metaphor translation of the Chinese "red" literature——Based on the Analysis of Sidney Shapiro's translation of Builders of New Life|
|Liu, Jin (Wuhan Polytechnic University, China)
|The Chinese "red" literature refers to the works of Chinese historical, Chinese revolution, Chinese heroic from 1942 to 1976.In order to solve the problems that cultural metaphor misunderstanding exist in the Chinese"red"literature translation, The paper selects the original text --builders of new life and Sidney Shapiro's English translated version to conclude the translation skills from the perspective of cognitive linguistics which include the harmonious principle. Sidney Shapiro is a famous translator who advocates the harmonious translation. The study will combine the translator's subjectivity with his translation skills to explore the translation model from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. The harmonious principle will be introduced and applied in the methodology. The paper first analyze the narrative skills in the Chinese"red"literature, then gives a comprehensive analysis to the metaphor translation in the translated text, it intends to build the metaphor translation model and strategies for the Chinese"red"literature. It comes to the conclusion that image translation, "creativity" translation,shift translation between concrete and abstract can be regarded as the translation skills to realize the harmonious translation. How to process the harmonious translation for the metaphor translation is a question to be discussed. The results shows that find out the best relevance information between the source text and the target text and conform to the harmonious principle can solve the problems.|
|Lexical retrieval performance and developmental bilingualism|
|Zeng, Zhen (Western Sydney University, Australia)
|This project compared performance in 1) lexical retrieval and inhibitory control between monolingual and bilingual participants in two age groups across the developmental span: primary school-aged children and young adults; and 2) inhibitory control skills among three groups of young adults with differing degrees of bilingualism: monolinguals, bilinguals, and second language (L2) learners; and 3) lexical retrieval in bilinguals and L2 learners. By conducting these comparisons, this project aimed to explain how bilingual performance in lexical retrieval differed from monolinguals, and how degree of bilingualism affect lexical retrieval and inhibitory control. According to these results, first, bilingual children showed similar performance to their monolingual peers in lexical retrieval. In contrast, bilingual young adults performed similarly to monolinguals in terms of their expressive vocabulary size, but had smaller receptive vocabulary and higher tip-of-tongue rates. Second, bilingual children performed better on the inhibitory control task than monolingual children, but this bilingual advantage in inhibitory control was not observed in the young adult groups. Finally, bilingual young adults performed better than the L2 learners in lexical retrieval. However, L2 learners scored similarly to monolingual and bilingual young adults in inhibitory control.